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Sample Details

British Airways

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Question :

 

You need to complete a strategic analysis on one of the following organisations:

- Aldi

- British Airways

- IKEA

The following represents the different elements you will need to consider in this first component of the 

assignment:

a) Identify a key external factor impacting on the organisation’s strategic positioning

Conduct a critical analysis in which you clearly defend the identification a specific issue 

relating to the strategic position of your chosen organisation (considering macroenvironmental and competitive factors). To highlight the strategic issue, your report should 

apply a number of the theories and concepts from the module, with justification for their use 

(20% of total marks).

b) Evaluate the organisation’s ability to sustain strategic advantage

In relation to a), use some of the models/theories from the module to critically assess your 

chosen organisation’s ability to respond to the external factor. Here it is important that you 

consider any challenges and tensions the issue may cause within the organisation and 

industry. Examples of such impact may include: changing/emerging stakeholder 

relationships; implications for the value system; implications for resources and capabilities; 

implications for organisational culture; etc. (25% of total marks).

 

Answer :

 

Introduction

This report has been developed to critically analyse the ability of the selected organization (British Airways) to sustain strategic advantages. The main focus of this paper is on identification of a key external factor which significantly affects the strategic positioning of British Airways. In order to identify the key external factor of British Airways macro-environmental analysis as well as competitive environment of the organization has been analysed. Macro business environment of British Airways has been analysed with the help of PESTEL analysis. On the other hand, Porter’s Five Forces model has been used to analyse the competitive environment of British Airways. After the identification of the key external factors, the ability of the organization has been assessed to respond to the external factors. This report also highlights the issue or problem that could arise due to the identified external factors within the organization. Thus, the impact on the organization of the key external factor has also been evaluated. In the beginning of the report, a brief overview of the organization has been provided in order to provide information about the functioning and business of the organization. In the last of the report, a brief conclusion has been provided containing key points of the whole report to provide a brief summary.

 

Overview of British Airways

British Airways is one of the flag carrier airlines of the UK or the United Kingdom. British Airways was founded on March 31, 1974. The Headquarter of British Airways is situated at Waterside Harmondsworth. British Airways is the second largest airline in the country in terms of passengers carried as well as fleet size. The main hub of the organization is at London Heathrow Airport (Mill, 2017). The organization provides its services across the globe. The slogan of the organization is “To Fly. To Serve.” The organization is committed to fulfil its commitments. The fleet size of British Airways is 278 and it serve more than 183 destination all over the globe. The total revenue of the organization was £13,020 million in 2018 while in the net income of the organization was £1,952 million in the same year. British Airways is one of the founding members of the Oneworld airline alliance. The organization merged with Iberia in January, 2011 in order to create the International Airlines Group.

 

Identifying the key external factors

An organization operate in an environment in which there are several factors which affect the business of the organization. The business environment of an organization can be divided into two such as internal business environment as well as external business environment. As the report focuses on identifying the key external factor, the external environment of the business has been analysed here (Prajogo, 2016). The organization does not have control over the external business environment and hence it is necessary for the organization to monitor the external business environment closely so that the impact of the external factors on the organization either can be mitigated or minimized. There are several tools which can be used to analyse and monitor the external environment of the business and identify the key external factor which affects the business significantly. Here, PESTEL analysis as well as Porter’s Five Forces analysis has been conducted.

 

The strategic issue that has been identified is the intense competition in the airline industry. There are several big players available in the market which increases the level of competition for British Airways to compete in the market.

 

PESTEL Analysis of British Airways

PESTEL analysis is a tool or framework which is used by the organizations to analyse the external environment of the organization. It helps in identifying the macro forces which an organization faces. The macro forces impact the organization significantly and determine the performance and productivity of the organization. PESTEL analysis has been done in order to analyse the macro-environment in which all the competitors are operating. It will help in analysing the environment that whether the macro-business environment is favourable for all the competitors to operate successfully in the market (Pan et al., 2018). It will also help in analysing opportunities and threats available in the market for British Airways. It includes the following factors;

 

Political factors: British Airways is operating in one of the most politically stable countries in the world. The United Kingdom is also one of the strongest countries in the world politically. The crime rate as well as corruption rate of the country is also very low which is one of the plus points for the organization to operate effectively and efficiently in the country. The United Kingdom also maintains strong relationship with other politically strong countries such as the United States of America. There is a sense of safety among the people of the country which is also one of the favourable political factors for the organization. However, a terrorist attack in 2016 has significantly affected the share price of the organization. One of the significant political factors trade union affect British Airways to a great extent. Thus, it can be said that to a certain extent the political factors are favourable for the organization although there are some factors which could impact the organization negatively.

 

Economic factors: some of the economic factors are favourable for British Airways such as the rate of inflation, exchange rate, as well as economic climate of the United Kingdom. It has direct impact on the performance of the organization and help the organization to function effectively and efficiently in the economy. The cost of raw materials for the airways is also is low which is one of the significant economic factors (Hamid et al., 2019). The cost of fuel used for the aircraft has also decreased which also benefit the organization. Apart from this, the GDP ($552,562 million) of the country is also very high. Per-capita income of the people is also high which can create demand for the services of the organization. However, the inflation rate fluctuates on a regular basis which is one of the concerns for the organization. The corporate tax is also low which helps the organization to increase its income.

 

Social factors: social factors are also a significant determinant of the performance and productivity of the organization. Therefore, it is very important for an organization to understand its customers in order to meet their needs and expectations. Social unrest significantly affects the functioning of the organization. The terrorist attack in 2016 was created social unrest which negatively affected the performance of the organization. However, the high-level of education of the population is one of the most benefiting social factors for the organization. Most of the people belong to working class and their per-capita income is very high. Thus, it will benefit the organization significantly. The lifestyle of the people along with their belief and values are benefiting for the organization. As the organization provides its services in different countries so any strikes in other countries affects the performance of the organization as well. For example, a union strikes in France in 2016 significantly affected the functioning of the organization. Thus, it can be said that the social factors are also favourable for the organization up to certain extent and hence the organization should monitor the social factors closely to reduce their impact on the organization.

 

Technological factors: technological factors have become one of the vital components of the business world. It has become a necessary element for the organization to be in the market and operate successfully. It is also a major source of competitive advantages and hence the organization must focus on technological factors explicitly. The airline industry is going through a digital disruption (Thompson and McLarney, 2017). There is a digital revolution all around the world and hence it is important for British Airways to focus on digital revolution and adopt new and advanced technology in order to compete with the key competitors in the market. However, digital technologies are highly costly which can change the cost structure of the organization but it is important to adopt and implement within the organization to gain competitive advantages. The organization is focusing and exploiting such technologies.

 

Environmental factors: the environmental factors have significant impact on airline industry. Nowadays, environmental factors determine the performance and productivity of the organization on a large scale. The weather condition affects the operation of the flights. British Airways faced an operational disruption due to bad weather condition in 2016 which significantly affected the performance of the organization. It led to cancellation of more than 50 flights along with delays in several flights (Lin et al., 2019). Apart from this, the emission of carbon from the flights is also an issue for the organization. Nowadays, everyone has become aware of the environmental condition and the government is focusing on protecting the environment. Several campaigns are running to protect the environment from carbon emission. Hence, it the organization will not reduce the carbon emission the government can take action against the organization. The organization can also lose the trust of the people which will adversely affect the business of the organization.

 

Legal factors: British Airways needs to comply with the legal and regulatory framework in order to operate successfully in the market. If the organization will not comply or fulfil the legal requirement, the government can take strict action against the organization and the organization may shut-down as well. Apart from this, the organization must also fulfil its commitments to the customers so that the customer cannot approach the court of low against the organization to take legal action.

 

Porter’s Five Forces Model

Porter’s five forces model is one of the most suitable and appropriate models to analyse the competition of a business. With the help of this model, the competitive environment of the organization can be analysed. The profitability of an organization can be affected or influenced by the number as well as power of competitive rivals of the organization, buyers, suppliers, new entrants, as well as substitute products. Porter’s five forces model helps the organization to analyse all these forces and hence based on the result the organization can develop strategies to gain competitive advantages (Baxter, 2019). Here, Porter’s five forces model analysis has been done in regard to British Airways.

 

Threat of new entrants

The threat of new entrant to British Airways is low. There are several barriers to enter into the airline industry. In order to enter into the airline industry, huge investment is required. It is not an easy task for a new player to enter into the market with such a huge investment in which large and big players are already operating successfully (Lange et al., 2015). There is not much scope to differentiate the product and hence gaining competitive advantage in the market for the new player is very tough. Maintenance cost is also very high in this industry. Thus, it is very tough for a new player to enter into the new market.

 

Threat of substitute

The threat of substitute product for British Airways is moderate. There are several modes of transport such as train, bus, ship, etc. which can be used to travel from one place to another place. So, these substitute products possess threat to British Airways. It also depends on the perspective of the customers that how they value the product. Low price seeking customer will not prefer airline while the customer choses time over money will prefer airline.

 

Bargaining power of customers

The bargaining power of customers in case of British Airways is high. It has been found that most of the customers are highly price sensitive and if they find low-price carrier, they prefer it to travel. There are several players available in the market and hence the customers have a lot of options to compare the price and service quality of the British Airways. It increases the bargaining power of the customers.

 

Bargaining power of suppliers

The bargaining power of suppliers for British Airways is also high. The number of suppliers who supply airplane, fuel, and labourers is very low (Alshubaily, 2017). Thus, the smaller number of suppliers increase their bargaining power.

 

Industry rivalry

The industry rivalry for British Airways is very high as there are several players operating in the market. British Airways faces competition from the local competitors as well as from the international players. It also increases the level of competition for British Airways.

 

Ability of the organization to sustain strategic advantages

As British Airways is facing a very tough competition from its competitors, the organization needs to deal with the stiff competition through strategic advantages. Gaining competitive advantages depends on the ability of the organization. In order to analyse the ability of British Airways, SWOT analysis has been done. It will help in analysing the strengths and weaknesses of British Airways along with opportunities and threats.

 

SWOT Analysis of British Airways

 

Strengths Weaknesses
·         High returns on capital expenditure ·         Consistency in quality of the product and services ·         Highly skilled workforce ·         Strong distribution network ·         Strong relationship with suppliers ·         Reliable suppliers ·         Strong brand portfolio ·         High-level customer satisfaction  ·         Need more investment in advanced technology ·         Need more investment in research and development ·         High attrition rate in workforce  
Opportunities Threats
·         Opening up of new market ·         More customers from online channels ·         More market development ·         Growth in economy ·         Lower inflation rate ·         New environmental regulation ·         No regular supply of innovative products ·         Strong rivalry  

 

 

Summary

SWOT analysis of British Airways shows that the organization has competitive advantage over the competitors which will help the organization to outdo the competitors. The organization has the ability to sustain strategic advantages. In order to operate successfully in the market, British Airways needs competitive advantage over its competitors. The organization gains high return on its capital expenditure which improves its financial condition. It is very important for the organizations to improve their financial condition in order to gain competitive advantages (Phadermrod et al., 2019). Strong financial condition is one of the sources of competitive advantages. British Airways has strong and long-term relationship with suppliers. The suppliers of the organization are also reliable. The organization have strong control over its supply chain. It improves the efficiency of the organization significantly. Thus, British Airways also gains competitive advantages due to strong and long-term relationship with the suppliers. Customer satisfaction also provides competitive advantages to the organization. If the customers of the organization are not satisfied with the product or service of the organization, they will shift to the competitors’ product or service. Hence, gaining customer satisfaction is necessary. British Airways has gained high-level of customer satisfaction (Gurel and Tat, 2017). Thus, it has high customer retention rate which increases the customer base of the organization day by day. Strong brand portfolio as well as strong distribution network of the organization is also a source of competitive advantages.

 

However, the organization has some weaknesses as well which reduces the ability of the organization to sustain strategic advantages. But the weaknesses of the organization are limited which can be overcome with effective strategies. The organization can also overcome the threats available in the market to improve its ability. So, overall it can be said that the organization has ability to sustain strategic advantages. Therefore, the organization can effectively compete in the intense competition.

 

 

Porter’s Generic Strategies of British Airways

The evaluation of Porter’s generic strategies of the organization will also help in analysing the key strategies of the organization to improve the strengths of the organization. As the strengths of the organization will improve the organization can easily compete in the market against the key competitors (Wicker et al., 2015). This model includes three key strategies such as cost leadership, differentiation, and focus. These three key strategies help in gaining competitive advantages.

 

British Airways focuses on broad scope of the market in order to meet the need and demand of the customer to attain high-level of customer satisfaction. British Airways does not focus on a single strategy among the given three key strategies. It focuses on a combination of two such as focus as well as differentiation which help the organization to gain competitive advantages over the key competitors and operate in the market successfully. Focusing on the combination of both focus and differentiation has helped to organization to improve its efficiency and effectiveness in its service delivery process (Bertozzi et al., 2017). The customer experience as well as level of customer satisfaction has been improved significantly due to its strategies.

 

It shows that the organization is capable enough to compete in the market in terms of resources as well as strategies. The resources available to the organization and strategies of the organization help the organization to gain competitive advantages over its competitors as they help in improving the ability of the organization. Thus, the organization has the ability to deal with the strong competition in the market.

 

 

Conclusion

British Airways is one of the largest airline company operating in the United Kingdom. It provides its services all over the globe. The analysis of macro business environment of the organization shows that British Airways is facing stiff competition from the key players operating in the airline industry. Apart from the stiff competition, there are several other issues as well but stiff competition is one of the key issues of the organization. But it has been found that the organization has the ability to deal with the key issues identified. The organization has the strong brand name with strong distribution network. The organization has also high skilled workforce which also provides competitive advantages to the organization. Thus, it can be said that the organization has the ability to deal with the stiff competition in the market through sustaining strategic advantages.

 

 

References

Alshubaily, A. (2017). Exploring the key success factors for young airlines. A focus on emirates airlines and its regional competitors' strategy for success. Saudi Journal of Business and Management Studies, 2(1), 30-37.

 

Baxter, G. (2019). A Strategic Analysis of Cargolux Airlines International Position in the Global Air Cargo Supply Chain Using Porter’s Five Forces Model. Infrastructures, 4(1), 6.

 

Bertozzi, F., Ali, C. M., & Gul, F. A. (2017). Porter’s five generic strategies; A case study from the hospitality industry. International Journal For Research In Mechanical & Civil Engineering (ISSN: 2208-2727), 3(2), 09-23.

 

Gürel, E., & Tat, M. (2017). SWOT analysis: A theoretical review. Journal of International Social Research, 10(51).

 

Hamid, A., Said, M., &Meiria, E. (2019). Potency and Prospect of Halal Market in Global Industry: An Empirical Analysis of Indonesia and United Kingdom. Business and Management Studies, 5(2), 54-63.

 

Lange, K., Geppert, M., Saka‐Helmhout, A., & Becker‐Ritterspach, F. (2015). Changing business models and employee representation in the airline industry: A comparison of British Airways and Deutsche Lufthansa. British Journal of Management, 26(3), 388-407.

 

Lin, L. I. U., Die, Y. U., &Renpu, F. E. N. G. (2019). PESTEL Analysis of Smart Tourism Public Service Informatization in Chengdu. Journal of Hebei Tourism Vocational College, (3), 2.

 

Mills, A. J. (2017). The Gendering of Organizational Culture: Social and Organizational Discourses in the Making of British Airways. In Insights and Research on the Study of Gender and Intersectionality in International Airline Cultures (pp. 37-47). Emerald Publishing Limited.

 

Pan, W., Chen, L., & Zhan, W. (2018). PESTEL analysis of construction productivity enhancement strategies: A case study of three economies. Journal of Management in Engineering, 35(1), 05018013.

 

Phadermrod, B., Crowder, R. M., & Wills, G. B. (2019). Importance-performance analysis based SWOT analysis. International Journal of Information Management, 44, 194-203.

 

Prajogo, D. I. (2016). The strategic fit between innovation strategies and business environment in delivering business performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 171, 241-249.

 

Thompson, J., & McLarney, C. (2017). What effects will the strategy changes undertaken by next Plc have on themselves and their competition in the UK Clothing Retail Market?. Journal of Commerce and Management Thought, 8(2), 234.

 

Wicker, P., Soebbing, B. P., Feiler, S., & Breuer, C. (2015). The effect of Porter’s generic strategies on organisational problems of non-profit sports clubs. European Journal for Sport and Society, 12(3), 281-307.

 

 

Element2: Critical Reflection

Decision making is one of the most difficult tasks as it determines the efficiency, effectiveness, performance, as well as productivity of the organization. A good decision may lead to achieve the predetermined goals and objectives of the organization whereas a bad decision may lead to the failure of the organization (Lerner et al., 2015). Therefore, it is very important to focus on effective decision making in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. There are several examples of good decision as well as bad decision made by the organization which have yielded differently to the organization.

 

British Airways also faced a similar situation in which the organization had to make a critical decision regarding its flight operation in the capital city of Egypt. I as a security in-charge played a very crucial role in the process of decision making. I was involved in the process of decision making from planning to the execution of the plan. In 2015, the Islamic States militants brought down a Russian charter flight (Tausch, 2015). This incident shaken the whole world and affected the operation of several airlines. The airline industry was in fear of operating their flights in the capital city of Egypt. Similarly, British Airways also stopped its flight services in the Cairo, the capital city of Egypt. The British Airways cancelled its flights to Cairo due to security concern and decided not to resume its flight services until or unless there is a security concern. Thus, the organization has to review or analyse the security issues before resuming its flight services to the capital city of Egypt.

 

Being a security in-charge, it was my duty to ensure the safety of flights or not to resume the flights if there was safety concern in the capital city of Egypt. The top management of the organization called a meeting to take a decision regarding resuming the flight services in Cairo, the capital city of Egypt. The organization followed the following process of decision making.

 

·         Identification of the goals: the organization firstly identified why the organization is going to make the decision. So, the first step of the process of decision making was to identify the problem regarding which the organization has to find the solutions. The organization clearly identified that it was security issues in the capital city of Egypt which has stopped the flight service. Thus, the organization set a goal to resume the flight services as soon as the security issues in Cairo is mitigated. I was given the responsibility to review and analyse the security concern in the city of Cairo effectively so that safety of the customers and crew members can be ensured after resuming the flight services to Cairo.

 

·         After identifying the problem and goal, the organization decided to gather information in order to make decision. I sent a team to the capital city of Egypt to gather information regarding the threats of Islamic States militants. The security department of the organization also reviewed the security issues from the Headquarter of the organization so that effective decision can be made. The team found that there is no safety concern now and flight services could be resumed. However, there was a fear of terrorist attack in the mind of the top management. Thus, they again asked to analyse the whole situation once again. They said that the safety of the customer and crew is the priority of the organization and hence they cannot take any kind of risk. The flight services to the capital city of Egypt may delay but they could not risk the lives of customers and crew.

 

·         After that the organization decided to review and analyse the consequences. There were two options before the organization. First option was not to resume the flight services till the proper security arrangement was made. Second option was to resume the flight services. Not resuming flight services means the revenue of the organization will reduce and hence the profitability of the organization will also reduce (Reichstein and Brusch, 2019). On the other hand, resuming flight services may lead to the security issues and the lives of customers and crew may at stake. Thus, the organization has to decide what to do in order to minimize the risk.

 

·         Make the decision: the team ensured proper and effective safety arrangement for the customers and crew. The organization also reviewed that there are no further safety issues in the capital city of Egypt. Thus, the organization decided to resume the flight services to the capital city of Egypt nearly after a week of cancelling the flight services.

 

·         Evaluation of the decision: after making the decision to resume the flight services after a week of cancelling the flight services, the organization evaluated the decision to measure the effectiveness of the decision (Azadnia et al., 2015). The organization found that the decision of the organization to resume the flight services was effective as there was no any safety concern for the customers and crew.

 

The organization made the strategic decision to resume the flight services in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. The strategic decision of the organization was also in favour of the customers of the organization. It is the responsibility of the organization to ensure the safety of its customers and crew. And hence the decision of stopping the flight services to the capital city of Egypt after a terrorist attack and resuming flight services to the capital city of Egypt was in favour of the customers. The strategic decision was also made to fulfil the interest of the organization. The organization always strives to provide a safe journey to its customer. Thus, the organization made the decision to provide a safe journey to its customer after a proper arrangement of safety (Bals et al., 2016). Every organization operates in the market to earn high margin of profit or maximize their profit over a period of time. Hence, the goal of British Airways is also to earn high margin of profit. In order to maximize the profit, the organization has to make critical decision on several grounds. If the organization will fail in making proper decision making, the organization will not achieve its goals of maximizing the profit. Thus, the strategic decision of the organization was also in favour of the organizational goal.

 

As the organization followed a standard process of decision making, it is not necessary to change the process of decision making in the future. However, there may be some critical situation which will require to develop several alternate solutions. In this strategic decision, the organization had to only decide whether the organization should resume its flight services to the capital city of Egypt. In the future, the organization may require to develop various alternative solution to the problem and evaluate the effectiveness of all the alternate solutions in order to select the best one to implement in the organization to deal with the problem (McWilliams et al., 2016). Thus, the organization should consider developing various alternative solutions in the future and evaluate their effectiveness. In this decision-making process, the problem was already identified. However, in some situation it is very tough to find the problem of the organization. Problem identification plays a very crucial role in making effective decision. If the problem of the organization will not be identified effectively, the organization cannot make effective strategic decision and hence it is very tough to deal with the problem. Thus, identifying the problem is necessary. Therefore, the organization should employ different techniques to identify the problem in the future.

 

In this decision-making process, the leaders of the organization adopted democratic leadership style in order to communicate strategic decision making throughout the organization. Democratic leadership style is one of the most effective leadership styles which help in making effective decision making within the organization. Democratic leadership includes or involves all the members of the organization in the process of decision making which improves the effectiveness of the decision because every member of the organization provides their input to make effective decision (Yahaya and Ebrahim, 2016). The leader of the organization has several options of decision. Democratic leadership also significantly improves the effectiveness of communication within the organization. Democratic leadership allows everyone of to take active participation in the process of decision making. Every member of the organization is allowed to have a say on the matter of concern without any fear or hesitation. Thus, the leaders of British Airways adopted the democratic leadership style to improve the effectiveness of the decision making. It also helped in communicating the decision throughout the organization effectively and efficiently. Democratic leadership helped in achieving the goals and objective of the organization.

 

The organizational culture of British Airways is very healthy. There is a healthy and effective working environment within the organization which improves the effectiveness as well as efficiency of the organization. The culture of the organization is a very essential component of organization which significantly determines the performance and productivity of the organization. Therefore, it is very important for the organization to focus on creating healthy organizational culture within the organization in order to ensure high performance and productivity of the organization. If the organizational culture of the organization is not healthy, it will significantly affect the level of motivation and morale of the employees. A low level of motivation and morale of the employees significantly reduce the overall performance of the organization. Healthy organizational culture also helps in implementing change within the organization effectively and efficiently (Alvesson and Syeningsson, 2015). Healthy organizational culture encourages the employees to accept the change within the organization readily and implement it to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization effectively and efficiently. Thus, the organizational culture of British Airways helped the organization to make the strategic decision effectively. The organization implemented the plan effectively and efficiently due to its healthy organizational culture.

 

 

Summary

British Airways stopped its flights services to the capital city of Egypt due to an attack by the Islamic States militants. Due to safety concern the organization decided to make a proper safety arrangement before resuming the flight services to the capital city of Egypt. The organization involved all the members of the organization in the process of decision making that whether the organization should resume the flight services or not to the capital city of Egypt. The decision of resuming the flight services to the capital city of Egypt was made following a standard process of decision making. The organization evaluated the whole scenario before resuming the flight services in order to ensure the safety of the customers and crew. The organization adopted democratic leadership style to make an effective communication throughout the organization to communicate the strategic decision. The organization also focuses on creating healthy organizational culture within the organization in order to keep the employees of the organization motivated and encouraged. However, the organization should change its process of decision making if a different situation occurs in the future as in this strategic decision the organization did not develop alternate solutions to the problem. The organization had also not to identify the problem as the problem was already identified.

 

 

References

Alvesson, M., &Sveningsson, S. (2015). Changing organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress. Routledge.

 

Azadnia, A. H., Saman, M. Z. M., & Wong, K. Y. (2015). Sustainable supplier selection and order lot-sizing: an integrated multi-objective decision-making process. International Journal of Production Research, 53(2), 383-408.

 

Bals, L., Kirchoff, J. F., &Foerstl, K. (2016). Exploring the reshoring and insourcing decision making process: toward an agenda for future research. Operations Management Research, 9(3-4), 102-116.

 

Lerner, J. S., Li, Y., Valdesolo, P., & Kassam, K. S. (2015). Emotion and decision making. Annual review of psychology, 66, 799-823.

 

McWilliams, A., Parhankangas, A., Coupet, J., Welch, E., & Barnum, D. T. (2016). Strategic decision making for the triple bottom line. Business Strategy and the Environment, 25(3), 193-204.

 

Reichstein, T., &Brusch, I. (2019). The decision‐making process in viral marketing—A review and suggestions for further research. Psychology & Marketing, 36(11), 1062-1081.

 

Tausch, A. (2015). Estimates on the global threat of Islamic State terrorism in the face of the 2015 Paris and Copenhagen attacks. Middle East Review of International Affairs, Rubin Center, Research in International Affairs, Idc Herzliya, Israel, 19(1).

 

Yahaya, R., & Ebrahim, F. (2016). Leadership styles and organizational commitment: literature review. Journal of Management Development, 35(2), 190-216.

 

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