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Endocrine Glands Location and Joshua Explaining Jennifer

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Question :


First: Using complete sentences, describe where in the body each of the following endocrine glands is located as well as the hormones secreted by each of the following glands: anterior and posterior lobe of the pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroids, and adrenals.


Second: When Joshua explained to his classmate Jennifer that the thyroid gland contains parathyroid cells in its follicles and that the parathyroid cells secrete parathyroid hormone and calcitonin, Jennifer told him he was all mixed up again. Correct Josh’s mistakes. PLEASE INCLUDE CITE AND REFERENCES


Answer :


First: Endocrine glands location

The location of different endocrine glands and the hormones they secret are presented here. Anterior and posterior lobe constitute pituitary gland. Vasopressin and Oxytocin are produced by posterior lobe. The anterior lobe does not produce hormones but it releases the hormones produced by hypothalamus nerve cells into circulation. Pituitary glands are located at the base of the brain. Pineal gland is located behind the third cerebral ventricle in the brain. The location is between two hemisphere of the brain. It produces melatonin that regulates wake and sleep cycles in humans. Thyroid gland produces two main hormones. They are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Appropriate amount of hormone development requires proper iodine intake. It is located at the front of the neck. Parathyroids are located behind the thyroid gland. They monitor blood calcium levels. It produces parathyroid hormone (PTH). Adrenal glands produce several hormones such as aldosterone and cortisol, and adrenaline. They are located about the kidneys (La Perle et al, 2018).



La Perle, K. M. D., & Dintzis, S. M. (2018). Endocrine system. In Comparative Anatomy and Histology (pp. 251-273). Academic Press.


Second: Joshua explaining Jennifer

Parathyroid glands are placed on thyroid gland from the posterior side. A connective tissue capsule separates each of the glands. Chief cells and the oxyphil are the two cell types that make the parathyroid. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone are produced by chief cells. PTH is a peptide hormone that is released when there is low level of calcium in blood. Parathyroid hormone helps in increasing the calcium levels in the blood. Moreover, there is another hormone called calcitonin that works to reduce the calcium levels in the blood when it increases beyond acceptable threshold (Randolph, 2012).



Randolph, G. W. (2012). Surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid glands: expert consult premium edition-enhanced online features and print. Elsevier Health Sciences.



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